Knowledge is a tree, not a conclusion, and it has been a tree for all of time. Sometime, however, it verboten in the Bible with a didactic “tale” apparently by oligarchs telling the average religious person to view the tree of knowledge and its information as verboten. This is the beginning of the limits and control of information necessary for oligarchic dominance, as opposed to capital-type control which is more commodity-based --though information is now a commodity as “intellectual property.” (With “intellectual” being a strong word for the slurry capital pumps into the population.)
The most important extension of this type of information control currently exists as academia with its early revival of control as the dialectic and didactic by academy founders Socrates and Plato in ancient Athens, and recently by Hegel to fit current capital. Important is that these instructors specifically used sexual abuse to control, which survived to our time as, for instance, the Aboriginal residence schools openly, and covertly elsewhere.
Causality is a rational reduction of the complexity of life saying that “if something happens in relation to something else, that something else caused the first thing.” As a rational reduction, it is a “dumbing-down” of all the highly sophisticade life-system that affect us. Knowledge is naturally structured both in society and in our minds in tree structures, also called “complex data structures” Personally, I have never been “causal” (I believe) because I have been influenced by aboriginal knowledge organization, and also abstract art and music early on as a child with access to all of New York’s museums and libraries (access has since been restricted to children.)
If I something is unavoidably causal, I say “simple math” --this causes that, w/o making a bid deal about it.
Empiricism is the scientific method (and system) built from causality and is considered the only (measurement) science, even by scientist who should know better. It suffers from being highly-fractured, as it is built from independent causal conclusions that also tend to be ego-vehicles from empiricist scientists. Another widely-misused term is “objective” as a synomym for “cruel” such that normal human thinking, such as the recollection of experiences, is excluded from empiricist conclusions; only empiricist numbers are used, often as an output of highly-purposed statistical systems. Dependance on statistics is such that statistics now often produce hypothesis and theory, that is validated by the same statistical systems. Information from other sources such as experience and observation, no matter how detailed, cannot test well against conclusive information produced specifically to test well by statistical systems. This statistical reality is most true for current control of the mind (both human and animal) in cognitive-behavioral strategies of CBT. Interestingly, in CBT, the dialectic method as the socratic method is also key for (as they say) “thought control.”
Objectivism, such as Ayn Rand’s and (current-capital’s) Adam Smith’s objectivism simply “objectify’s” people to make then inanimate numbers rather than feeling people to allow for capital exploitation. As it happens, capital-supporting empiricism, as info-oligarchic, also leverages this, and fills its capital-supportive role by defining and maintaining it as its own from of exploitation, originally sexual abuse.
Tuesday, January 18, 2011
Depression: Social interventions
An alternative to medication and CBT is to attempt to reinforce social supports. Depressed individuals may see themselves as outcasts, but even recalling a pleasurable group activity may help lift their spirits; this implies that feeling they have an important social role may reverse factors that reinforce depression (Scheff, 2009). Social belonging can also reduce suicidal ideation (McLaren & Challis, 2009). While social conflict increases depression, conflict resolution can reduce it (Vranceanu, 2009); when depressed individuals engage in dysfunctional social behaviors, it is often the result of misinterpreting social events (Steger, 2009).
Social interventions may be most beneficial for clients with high social functioning, as pregnant women with depression benefited the most from a perception of social importance when they rated high on social functioning (O'Mahen, 2010).
An example of a reaction the difficulties in treating depression has been the development of Behavioral Activation (BA), which hones CBT by focusing on the mechanisms that reinforce depression in way that even BA practitioners describe as painful (Dimidjian, 2006).
This further shows the difficulty of depression treatment, as difficult forms of CBT therapy elicit a high dropout rate (Zayfert, 2005). There are many other barriers to both medication and talk therapies: medication adherence is often low (Prukkanone, 2010), replase can be high, and a significant barrier is therapist cost (Paykel, 2007).
An alternative to medication and CBT is to attempt to reinforce social supports. The depressed may see themselves as social outcasts, and even a memory of group activity can lift their spirits implying that a perception of importance in society can reverse depression reinforcers (Scheff, 2009). A sense of belonging can reduce suicidal ideation (McLaren & Challis, 2009). Social conflict increases depression, and hence a resolution of conflict can reduce it (Vranceanu, 2009), and dysfunctional social behavior that comorbid with depression is often the result of the misinterpretation of social events (Steger, 2009).
For pregnant women with depression, a perception of social importance benefited those who where high in social function. So, perhaps these social effects apply most to the high social functioning clients.
DeMarco, C. (1998, June). On the impossibility of placebo effects in psychotherapy. Philosophical Psychology, p. 207. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Dimidjian, S., Hollon, S., Dobson, K., Schmaling, K., Kohlenberg, R., Addis, M., et al. (2006). Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 658-670. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.4.658.
Hougaard, E. (2010). Placebo and antidepressant treatment for major depression: Is there a lesson to be learned for psychotherapy?. Nordic Psychology, 62(2), 7-26. doi:10.1027/1901-2276/a000008.
O'Mahen, H., Flynn, H., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Rumination and interpersonal functioning in perinatal depression. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 29(6), 646-667. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Paykel, E. (2007) Cognitive therapy in relapse prevention in depression. International Journal of Neuropsychoparmacology 10(1), 131-6.
Prukkanone, B., Vos, T., Burgess, P., Chaiyakunapruk, N., & Bertram, M. (2010). Adherence to antidepressant therapy for major depressive patients in a psychiatric hospital in Thailand. BMC Psychiatry, 1064-68. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-64.
Scheff, T. (2009). A Social theory and treatment of depression. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 11(1), 37-49. doi:10.1891/1559-4318.104.22.168.
Vranceanu, A., Gallo, L., & Bogart, L. (2009). Depressive symptoms and momentary affect: the role of social interaction variables. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 26(5), 464-470. doi:10.1002/da.20384.
Zayfert, C., DeViva, J., Becker, C., Pike, J., Gillock, K., & Hayes, S. (2005). Exposure Utilization and Completion of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for PTSD in a “Real World” Clinical Practice. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 637-645. doi:10.1002/jts.20072.