Knowledge is a tree, not a conclusion, and it has been a tree for all of time. Sometime, however, it verboten in the Bible with a didactic “tale” apparently by oligarchs telling the average religious person to view the tree of knowledge and its information as verboten. This is the beginning of the limits and control of information necessary for oligarchic dominance, as opposed to capital-type control which is more commodity-based --though information is now a commodity as “intellectual property.” (With “intellectual” being a strong word for the slurry capital pumps into the population.)

The most important extension of this type of information control currently exists as academia with its early revival of control as the dialectic and didactic by academy founders Socrates and Plato in ancient Athens, and recently by Hegel to fit current capital. Important is that these instructors specifically used sexual abuse to control, which survived to our time as, for instance, the Aboriginal residence schools openly, and covertly elsewhere.

Causality is a rational reduction of the complexity of life saying that “if something happens in relation to something else, that something else caused the first thing.” As a rational reduction, it is a “dumbing-down” of all the highly sophisticade life-system that affect us. Knowledge is naturally structured both in society and in our minds in tree structures, also called “complex data structures” Personally, I have never been “causal” (I believe) because I have been influenced by aboriginal knowledge organization, and also abstract art and music early on as a child with access to all of New York’s museums and libraries (access has since been restricted to children.)

If I something is unavoidably causal, I say “simple math” --this causes that, w/o making a bid deal about it.

Empiricism is the scientific method (and system) built from causality and is considered the only (measurement) science, even by scientist who should know better. It suffers from being highly-fractured, as it is built from independent causal conclusions that also tend to be ego-vehicles from empiricist scientists. Another widely-misused term is “objective” as a synomym for “cruel” such that normal human thinking, such as the recollection of experiences, is excluded from empiricist conclusions; only empiricist numbers are used, often as an output of highly-purposed statistical systems. Dependance on statistics is such that statistics now often produce hypothesis and theory, that is validated by the same statistical systems. Information from other sources such as experience and observation, no matter how detailed, cannot test well against conclusive information produced specifically to test well by statistical systems. This statistical reality is most true for current control of the mind (both human and animal) in cognitive-behavioral strategies of CBT. Interestingly, in CBT, the dialectic method as the socratic method is also key for (as they say) “thought control.”

Objectivism, such as Ayn Rand’s and (current-capital’s) Adam Smith’s objectivism simply “objectify’s” people to make then inanimate numbers rather than feeling people to allow for capital exploitation. As it happens, capital-supporting empiricism, as info-oligarchic, also leverages this, and fills its capital-supportive role by defining and maintaining it as its own from of exploitation, originally sexual abuse.

Tuesday, January 18, 2011

Executive function in depression

Conduct disorder, ADHD, and anxiety disorder” (Sigelman & Rider, p. 482) are often comorbid with depression in children, showing an overlap between depression and ADHD in children.  In my writing about ADHD in children (van Vlaanderen, 2010), I describe evidence of an executive function (EF) component to ADHD, and James (2008) supports an EF component for depression because depressive hyper-activity occurs in the executive function regions.  He promotes the idea that EFs for the depressed can be enhanced with CBT in ways that are similar to my speculation that EF functioning can be enhanced for children with ADHD through psychoeducation. 

In depressed adults, James finds "rigid and concrete thinking, attentional problems" and "memory difficulties" (p. 10) associated with executive function deficit (EFD).  In adults with ADHD who had it as children, Barkley (2004) shows socialization problems that are similar to conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) such as arrests and other anti-social behaviors, and Clark (2002) confirms that socialization problems are related to EFD in ADHD-affected children--even for children not diagnosed with CD or ODD.

Speculating along these lines, psychoeducational and -therapeutic strategies may be developed to help with depression (and adult ADHD) that will focus directly on EFD and can be evaluated by their efficacy with respect to EF.  With time, EF monitoring and imaging will improve, perhaps to the point where it can be part of individual evaluation.

Barkley, R., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2004). Young adult follow-up of hyperactive children: antisocial activities and drug use. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 45(2), 195-211. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00214.x.

Clark, C., Prior, M., & Kinsella, G. (2002). The Relationship Between Executive Function Abilities, Adaptive Behaviour, and Academic Achievement in Children with Externalising Behaviour Problems. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 43(6), 785-796. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

James, I., Reichelt, F., Carlsonn, P., & McAnaney, A. (2008). Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Executive Functioning in Depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(3), 210-218. doi:10.1891/0889-8391.22.3.210.

Mckinley, C., (2010). The Treatment of Depression in Children. Retrieved October 19, 2010 from

Sigelman, C.K., & Rider, E.A. (2009). Life-Span Human Development, 6th edition . Thomson Wadsworth.

van Vlaanderen, J., (2010). Executive function, working memory control, and ADHD. Retrieved October 19, 2010 from

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